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 Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam and was made obligatory in the tenth, ninth or sixth year, according to different reports. In the tenth year, the Prophet r announced that he intended to perform hajj; this was the only time that he performed hajj after the migration to Madinah.

The Muslims came from all over the Arabian Peninsula to perform hajj with him. He left Madinah five days before the end of Dhul Qa`dah (a lunar month).

When he r halted in Arafat, the following verse was revealed to him:

The Situation in Arabia Prior to Islam

Description: A brief look at the social and political state of the Arabian Peninsula prior to the birth of Prophet Muhammad r.

Arabia in that period was divided into three areas of influence. The north lived under the shadow of two great empires, the Christian Byzantium and the Zoroastrian Persian, empires in perpetual war, so evenly matched that neither could achieve definitive victory over the other. In the shadows of these powers lived the Arabs of the northern region with divided and shifting allegiances.

The Treason of Former Allies

Description: Mistakes at Uhud lead to heavy losses of life, and a new tactic reveals victory for the Muslims.

The Battle on Mount Uhud

In fact, in the following year, an army of three thousand men came from Makkah to destroy Madinah. The Prophet’s first idea was merely to defend the city, a plan of which Ibn Ubay, the leader of “the Hypocrites”, strongly approved. But the young men who had not fought at Badr, believing that God would help them against any odds and thought it a shame that they should linger behind walls.