Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam and was made obligatory in the tenth, ninth or sixth year, according to different reports. In the tenth year, the Prophet r announced that he intended to perform hajj; this was the only time that he performed hajj after the migration to Madinah.
The Muslims came from all over the Arabian Peninsula to perform hajj with him. He left Madinah five days before the end of Dhul Qa`dah (a lunar month).
When he r halted in Arafat, the following verse was revealed to him:
The Situation in Arabia Prior to Islam
Description: A brief look at the social and political state of the Arabian Peninsula prior to the birth of Prophet Muhammad r.
Arabia in that period was divided into three areas of influence. The north lived under the shadow of two great empires, the Christian Byzantium and the Zoroastrian Persian, empires in perpetual war, so evenly matched that neither could achieve definitive victory over the other. In the shadows of these powers lived the Arabs of the northern region with divided and shifting allegiances.
From Birth to Adulthood
Description: A glimpse at the life of the Prophet prior to revelation.
The Prophet’s Birth
The First Revelations
Description: A detailed account of how the Prophet r, received his first revelations from God.
Persecution in Makkah
Description: The early days of the Prophet’s mission and persecution of the adherents of Islam.
Description: The major events which led to the emigration of the Muslims to Madinah.
Men from Yathrib
The Hijrah of the Prophet r
Description: A detailed account of the migration of the Prophet r from Makkah to Madinah.
The Hijrah (23 September, 622 C.E.)
A New Stage in Madinah
Description: The challenges of establishing a new state in Madinah.
The Campaign of Badr
Description: One of the most decisive battles in human history changed the political balance of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Campaign of Badr
The Treason of Former Allies
Description: Mistakes at Uhud lead to heavy losses of life, and a new tactic reveals victory for the Muslims.
The Battle on Mount Uhud
In fact, in the following year, an army of three thousand men came from Makkah to destroy Madinah. The Prophet’s first idea was merely to defend the city, a plan of which Ibn Ubay, the leader of “the Hypocrites”, strongly approved. But the young men who had not fought at Badr, believing that God would help them against any odds and thought it a shame that they should linger behind walls.