What the Prophet (peace be upon him) promised to humanity:
That he shall be an intercessor on the Day of Judgement
When the time comes in which Allah chooses to resurrect all of mankind on the day of judgement, the Prophet (peace be upon him), as he himself explained, will be the leader of the children of Adam, carrying the banner of praise. The enormity of the situation is further expounded by the Prophet (peace be upon him) as he explained that the all of previous Prophets and the Messengers will be beneath his banner:
"I will be the leader of the children of Adam on the day of resurrection, and I am not boasting. In my hand there will be a banner of praise, and I am not boasting. There will be no prophet that day, Adam or anyone else, but he will be beneath my banner. I will be the first one to intercede and the first one to be called upon to intercede, and I am not boasting." 
The people's distress on that day will go beyond such a level, and become so intense that the people will ask the greatest Messengers sent to intercede with Allah on their behalf, so that judgement may begin to be passed over humanity. The Messengers, for various reasons relating to their humility and fear of Allah, will try to evade their requests, each one of them telling them to go to another. Finally, they will approach Jesus (peace be upon him) who will instruct them to go to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). 
It was narrated from Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “I will be the leader of mankind on the Day of Resurrection. Do you know why that is? Allah will gather mankind, the first and the last of them, in one place, so that the caller will be able to make them all hear his voice and the watcher will be able to see them all. The sun will be brought close and the people will suffer such distress and trouble that they will not be able to bear it or stand it. The people will say, ‘Don't you see in the state you are in and the condition you have reached? Why don't you look for someone who can intercede for you with your Lord?’ The people will say to one another: ‘Go to your father, Adam.’ So they will go to Adam (peace be upon him) … I will go and prostrate beneath the Throne. Then I will be given words of praise such have never been given to anyone before me, then it will be said, ‘O Muhammad! Raise your head; ask, for it will be given to you, and intercede, for your intercession will be accepted.’ I will raise my head and say, ‘My ummah, O lord! My ummah, O Lord!’ It will be said, ‘O Muhammad, admit from among your ummah those who will not be brought to account from the right-hand gate of Paradise, and they will share the other gates with the people.’ He said, By the One in Whose hand is my soul, the distance between two of the gate-posts is like the distance between Makkah and Humayr, or between Makkah and Busra.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 4712)
Thus, the Prophet (peace be upon him) will intercede for the people on this great day. Such a virtue was given to him due to the great favours which were bestowed upon him by Allah, his great characteristics, noble attitude, striving for the sake of Allah and doing as he commands. Allah has blessed him with his virtues in his own self, in his call and in his ummah. For example, he took him as a close friend as he did with Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him). According to a hadith narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh and by Abu 'Awaanah:
"Allah has taken me as a close friend as he has took Abraham as a close friend" 
He gave him the noble Qur'an, the like of which was given to no other Prophet or Messenger:
“And We have bestowed upon thee the seven oft-repeated (verses) and the Grand Qur'an.” (Qur'an 15:87)
Allah singled him out to receive six things that were not given to any Prophet before him:
"I have been favoured over the Prophets with six things: I have been give concise speech; I have been supported with fear (from me, cast in the hearts of my enemies); the spoils of war have been made permissible to me; the earth has been made a means of purification and a place of worship for me; I have been sent to all of mankind; and I am the last of the Prophets." 
This is the station of praise and glory which Allah has promised to him, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“It may be that your Lord will raise you to Maqaam Mahmood (a station of praise and glory, i.e., the honour of intercession on the Day of Resurrection)”
There follows the lengthy hadeeth about intercession:
This is the great intercession in the place of standing, and it is intercession so that judgement may be passed. Intercession on the Day of Resurrection is of two types:
1 – Intercession which will be accepted. This is intercession which is proven in the texts of sharee’ah. More details will be given below.
2 – Intercession which will be rejected. This is intercession which according to the texts of the Qur’aan and Sunnah is invalid and ineffective, as we shall see below.
Accepted intercession is of various types:
1- The greatest intercession, which is al-maqaam al-mahmood, which the earlier and later generations will ask the Prophet (peace be upon him) to intercede for them with their Lord so that He might relieve them of the horrors of the Day of Judgement. This has been explained above.
2- Intercession for those among the monotheists who committed major sins and entered Hell, that they may be brought forth from it. It was narrated that Anas said: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “My intercession will be for those among my ummah who committed major sins.” (Saheeh Sunan al-Tirmidhi, 1983).
3- The intercession of the Messenger for people whose good deeds and bad deeds are equal, that they may enter Paradise, and for others who had been ordered to Hell, that they may not enter it.
4- Intercession that some people may enter Paradise without being brought to account.
5- Intercession of the Prophet (peace be upon him) for his paternal uncle Abu Taalib, so that the torment of the Fire be reduced for him. This applies only in the case of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his paternal uncle Abu Taalib.
6- The intercession of the Prophet (peace be upon him) that the believers might be granted permission to enter Paradise.
Intercession for those who committed sin will not be granted only to the Prophet (peace be upon him), rather the Prophets, the martyrs, the scholars, the righteous and the angels will also join in that. A man’s righteous deeds may also intercede for him. But the Prophet (peace be upon him) will have the greatest share of intercession.
There follows a hadeeth which indicates that intercession will be granted to the Prophets and others. It was narrated that Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri said: “We said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, will we see our Lord on the Day of Resurrection?’” … and he quoted the hadeeth, until he came to the part which describes how the believers will pass across the Siraat and will intercede for their brothers who have entered Hell: “They will say, ‘O Lord, our brothers used to pray with us and fast with us and do good deeds with us.’ Allah will say, ‘Go, and whoever you find with a dinar’s-weight of faith in his heart, bring him forth, and Allah will forbid their bodies to the Fire.’ So they will go, and some of them will be sinking into the Fire up to their feet or shins, and they will bring forth those whom they recognize. Then they will come back, and He will say, ‘Go, and whoever you find with half a dinar’s-weight of faith in his heart, bring him forth.’ So they will go and bring forth those whom they recognize. Then they will come back, and He will say, ‘Go, and whoever you find with an atom’s-weight of faith in his heart, bring him forth.’ So they will go and bring forth those whom they recognize.” Abu Sa’eed said: “If you do not believe me, then read the verse interpretation of the meaning):
‘Surely, Allah wrongs not even of the weight of an atom (or a small ant), but if there is any good (done), He doubles it, and gives from Him a great reward’
[The Prophet (peace be upon him) said:] “So the Prophets, the angels and the believers will intercede, and the Compeller (Allah) will say, ‘There remains My intercession.’ Then He will take a handful from the Fire and bring forth some people whose bodies have been burnt and throw them into a river at the entrance to Paradise that is called the Water of Life.
They will grow on its banks, as a seed carried by a flood grows. You have seen how it grows beside a rock or beside a tree, and how the side facing the sun is usually green while the side facing the shade is white. They will come out like pearls, and necklaces will be placed around their necks. Then they will enter Paradise, and the people of Paradise will say, ‘These are the people emancipated by the Most Merciful. He has admitted them into Paradise without them having done any good deeds and without them having sent forth any good (for themselves).’ Then it will be said to them, ‘You will have what you have seen and the equivalent thereof.’”
(Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 7440)
Intercession of the Day of Resurrection will only be granted if three conditions are met, as indicated in the verses (interpretation of the meaning):
“And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with”
“On that day no intercession shall avail, except the one for whom the Most Gracious (Allah) has given permission and whose word is acceptable to Him”
“He knows what is before them, and what is behind them, and they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. And they stand in awe for fear of Him”
“Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His Permission?”
These conditions are:
1- The permission of Allah to the intercessor to intercede.
2- Allah’s being pleased with the intercessor.
3- His being pleased with the one for whom intercession is made.
It was narrated from the Prophet (peace be upon him) that the intercession of some people will not be accepted on the Day of Resurrection, including those who cursed a great deal. Muslim narrated that Abu’l-Darda’ said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) say, ‘Those who curse will not be witnesses or intercessors on the Day of Resurrection.”
With regard to the kind of intercession that will be rejected, this is intercession that does not meet the conditions required of permission from Allah or His being pleased (with the intercessor or the one for whom intercession is made), such as the intercession which the people of shirk believe that their gods will achieve. They only worship them because they believe that they will intercede for them with Allah, and that they are mediators or intermediaries between them and Allah. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Surely, the religion (i.e. the worship and the obedience) is for Allah only. And those who take Awliyaa’ (protectors, helpers, lords, gods) besides Him (say): ‘We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allah.’ Verily, Allah will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allah guides not him who is a liar, and a disbeliever”
Allah tells us that this kind of intercession is ineffective and of no benefit, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“So no intercession of intercessors will be of any use to them”
“And fear a Day (of Judgement) when a person shall not avail another, nor will intercession be accepted from him nor will compensation be taken from him nor will they be helped”
“And fear the Day (of Judgement) when no person shall avail another, nor shall compensation be accepted from him, nor shall intercession be of use to him, nor shall they be helped”
“O you who believe! Spend of that with which We have provided for you, before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession. And it is the disbelievers who are the Zaalimoon (wrongdoers)”
Hence Allah did not accept the intercession of His Close Friend Ibraaheem for his father Azar who was a mushrik. It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Ibraaheem will meet his father on the Day of Resurrection, and Azar’s face
will be dark and covered with dust. Ibraaheem will say to him, ‘Did I not tell you not to disobey me?’ His father will say, ‘Today I will not disobey you.'’ Ibraaheem will say, ‘O Lord! You promised me not to disgrace me on the Day of Resurrection; and what will be more disgraceful to me than cursing and dishonoring my father?’ Then Allah will say, ‘I have forbidden Paradise to the disbelievers.’ Then he will be addressed, ‘O Ibraaheem, what is beneath your feet?’ He will look and there he will see a Dhabh (an animal,) blood-stained, which will be caught by the legs and thrown into the Fire.”
(Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3350).
The first type: exclusive intercession, which will be granted only to the Messenger (peace be upon him), and no one else in creation will have a share in that with him. This is of various kinds:
1 – The greater intercession. This is the station of praise and glory (al-maqaam al-mahmood) which Allah has promised to him, when He said (interpretation of the meaning):
“And in some parts of the night (also) offer the Salaat (prayer) with it (i.e. recite the Qur’aan in the prayer) as an additional prayer (Tahajjud optional prayer Nawaafil) for you (O Muhammad). It may be that your Lord will raise you to Maqaam Mahmood (a station of praise and glory, i.e., the honour of intercession on the Day of Resurrection)”
What this intercession means is that he will intercede for all of mankind when Allah delays the Reckoning and they have waited for so long in the place of gathering on the Day of Resurrection. Their distress and anxiety will reach a point where they can no longer bear it, and they will say, “Who will intercede for us with our Lord so that He will pass judgement amongst His slaves?” and they will wish to leave that place. So the people will come to the Prophets, each of whom will say, “I am not able for it,” until when they come to our Prophet (peace be upon him), he will say, “I am able for it, I am able for it.” So he will intercede for them, that judgement may be passed. This is the greater intercession, and it is one of the things that belong exclusively to the Prophet (peace be upon him).
There are many ahaadeeth which speak of this intercession, in al-Saheehayn and elsewhere, such as the hadeeth narrated by al-Bukhaari in his Saheeh (1748) from Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him): “The people will fall on their knees on the Day of Resurrection, each nation following its Prophet, saying, ‘O So and so, intercede!’ until intercession is granted to the Prophet (peace be upon him). On that Day Allah will resurrect him to a station of praise and glory.”
2 – Intercession for the people of Paradise to enter Paradise.
It was narrated that Anas ibn Maalik said: “The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: ‘I will come to the gate of Paradise on the Day of Resurrection and will ask for it to be opened. The gatekeeper will say, “Who are you?” I will say, “Muhammad.” He will say, “I was commanded not to open it for anyone before you.”’” (Narrated by Muslim, 333).
According to another report narrated by Muslim (332), “I will be the first one to intercede concerning Paradise.”
3 – The intercession of the Messenger (peace be upon him) for his uncle Abu Taalib:
It was narrated from Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allah be pleased with him) that mention was made of his uncle Abu Taalib in the presence of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). He said, “Perhaps my intercession will benefit him on the Day of Resurrection, and he will be placed in a shallow part of the Fire which will come up to his ankles and cause his brains to boil.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1408; Muslim, 360).
4 – His intercession so that some people of his ummah will enter Paradise without being brought to account.
This kind of intercession was mentioned by some of the scholars, who quoted as evidence the lengthy hadeeth of Abu Hurairah concerning intercession, in which it says: “Then it will be said, ‘O Muhammad, raise you head; ask, it will be given to you; intercede, your intercession will be accepted.’ So I will raise my head and say, ‘My ummah, O Lord; my ummah, O Lord; my ummah, O Lord.’ It will be said, ‘Admit those among your ummah who are not to be brought to account through the right-hand gate of Paradise. They will share the other gates with the people of other nations.’” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 4343; Muslim, 287).
The second type: general intercession. This will be granted to the Messenger (peace be upon him) and others – angels, Prophets and righteous people – will share in it as Allah wills. This is of various kinds:
1 – Intercession for some people who have entered Hell, that they might be brought forth from it. There is a great deal of evidence for this, for example:
The marfoo’ hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudri (may Allah be pleased with him) in Saheeh Muslim (269): “By the One in Whose hand is my soul, none of you can be more insistent in asking Allah to restore his rights against his opponent than the believers who will ask Allah, on the Day of Resurrection, (to grant them the power of intercession) for their brothers who are in the Fire. They will say, ‘Our Lord, they used to fast with us and pray and perform Hajj.’ It will be said to them, ‘Bring out those whom you recognize, so the Fire will be forbidden to burn them.’ So they will bring out many people… And Allah will say: ‘The angels have interceded, and the Prophets have interceded, and the believers have interceded. There is none left but the Most Merciful of those who show mercy.’ Then He will seize a handful of the Fire and bring forth from it people who never did anything good.”
2 – Intercession for people who deserve Hell, that they may not enter it. This may be indicated by the words of the Prophet (peace be upon him): “There is no Muslim who dies and forty men who associate nothing with Allah pray the funeral prayer for him, but Allah will accept their intercession for him.” (Narrated by Muslim, 1577). For this intercession happens before the deceased enters Hell, and Allah will accept their intercession concerning that.
3 – Intercession for some of the believers who deserve Paradise, that they may be raised in status in Paradise. For example, Muslim (may Allah have mercy on him) narrated (1528) that the Prophet (peace be upon him) prayed for Abu Salamah and said: “O Allah, forgive Abu Salamah and raise his status among those who are guided, and take good care of his family that he has left behind. Forgive us and him, O Lord of the Worlds, make his grave spacious for him and illuminate it for him.”
Conditions of this intercession:
The evidence indicates that intercession in the Hereafter will only happen if the following conditions are met:
1) Allah must approve of the one for whom intercession is made, because Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“and they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased”
This implies that the one for whom intercession is made must be a believer in Tawheed, because Allah is not pleased with the mushrikeen. In Saheeh al-Bukhaari (97) it is narrated from Abu Hurairah (may Allah be pleased with him) that he said: “It was said, ‘O Messenger of Allah, who will be the most blessed of people by your intercession of the Day of Resurrection?’ The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “I thought, O Abu Hurairah, that no one would ask me about this hadeeth before you, because I have seen how keen you are to learn hadeeth. The people who will be most blessed by my intercession on the Day of Resurrection are those who say Laa ilaaha ill-Allah sincerely from the heart.’”
2) Allah must give permission to the intercessor to intercede, because Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His Permission?”[al-Baqarah 2:255]
3) Allah must approve of the intercessor, because Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“…whose intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with”
And the Messenger (peace be upon him) has stated that those who curse much will not be intercessors on the Day of Resurrection, as Muslim narrated in his Saheeh (4703) that Abu’l-Darda’ (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) say, ‘Those who curse much will not be witnesses or intercessors on the Day of Resurrection.’”
The second type of intercession is that which has to do with matters of this world. This is of two types:
1 – That which is within a person’s ability to do something. This is permissible, subject to two conditions:
1) That it should have to do with a permissible thing. It is not correct to intercede concerning something that will result in the loss of people’s rights or in wrong being done to them. It is also not correct to intercede concerning something that is haraam, such as those who intercede concerning those who deserve the hadd punishment, asking that it not be carried out on them. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“Help you one another in Al-Birr and At-Taqwa (virtue, righteousness and piety); but do not help one another in sin and transgression”
According to a hadeeth narrated by ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her), Quraysh were concerned about a Makhzoomi woman who had stolen, and they said, “Who will speak to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) concerning her? Who better than Usaamah, the beloved of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him)?” So Usaamah spoke to him, and the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Are you interceding concerning one of the hadd punishments prescribed by Allah?” Then he stood up and addressed the people, and said, “O people, those who came before you were only destroyed because if one of their nobles stole they would let him off but if one of the weak stole they would carry out the punishment on him. By Allah, if Faatimah the daughter of Muhammad were to steal, I would cut off her hand.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3261; Muslim, 3196).
In Saheeh al-Bukhaari (5568) and Saheeh Muslim (4761) it is narrated that Abu Moosa (may Allah be pleased with him) said that if someone came with a need to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), he would turn to those who were sitting with him and say, “Intercede, and you will be rewarded, and Allah will decree what He wills through the lips of His Messenger.”
2) In his heart, the person must depend on Allah alone to realize his aim and ward off what is disliked. He should know that this intercessor is no more than a means which Allah has permitted to us, and that benefit and harm are in the hand of Allah alone. This meaning is expressed clearly in the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (peace be upon him).
If either of these two conditions is not met, then the intercession is not allowed.
2 – That which is not within a person’s ability to do something, such as seeking intercession from the dead and occupants of graves, or from a living person who is absent, believing that he is able to hear and meet one’s need. This is the kind of intercession that constitutes shirk, which is clearly forbidden in many verses of the Qur’aan and ahaadeeth from the Prophet (peace be upon him), because it ascribes to them attributes which belong only to the Creator, for He is the Ever-living Who never dies.
Their specious argument is that the awliya’ (“saints”) and Sayyids intercede for their relatives and for those who call on them and take them as friends and love them, and because of that they ask them for intercession. This is exactly what Allah described the early mushrikeen as doing, when they said,
“These are our intercessors with Allah”
[Yoonus 10:18 – interpretation of the meaning]
– referring to those whom they worshipped among the angels, righteous people and others, and meaning that they would intercede for them with Allah. In the same way, the contemporary mushrikoon say “the awliya’ (‘saints’) intercede for us; we cannot ask of Allah (directly) so we ask them and they ask of Allah.” And they say that the Prophet (peace be upon him) and all the Prophets and righteous people were given the power of intercession, and we call upon them and say, intercede for us as Allah has given you the power of intercession. They give the example of kings in this world, and say that the kings of this world can only be approached through intercession; if you need something, you go to their friends and those who are close to them, their ministers, gatekeepers, servants, etc., to intercede for you so that the king can deal with your matter; so we reach Allah by approaching and asking His awliyaa’ and the Sayyids who are close to Him. By doing this they fall into the same shirk as those who came before them, and they compare the Creator to His creation.
Allah tells us of a righteous man in Soorat Ya-Seen, who said (interpretation of the meaning):
“ ‘Shall I take besides Him aalihah (gods)? If the Most Gracious (Allah) intends me any harm, their intercession will be of no use for me whatsoever”
And Allah tells us that the kuffaar will confess it themselves:
“They will say: ‘We were not of those who used to offer the Salaah (prayers),
Nor we used to feed Al-Miskeen (the poor);
And we used to talk falsehood (all that which Allah hated) with vain talkers.
And we used to belie the Day of Recompense,
Until there came to us (the death) that is certain’
So no intercession of intercessors will be of any use to them”
[al-Muddaththir 74:43-48 – interpretation of the meaning]
The Prophet (peace be upon him), even though he will be given the power of intercession on the Day of Resurrection, will not be able to use it until after Allah has given him permission and has approved of the one for whom intercession is to be made.
Hence he (peace be upon him) did not let his ummah ask him to intercede for them in this world, and that was not narrated from any one of his Sahaabah (may Allah be pleased with them). If that had been a good thing, he would have conveyed it to his ummah and called them to do it, and his Companions who were keen to do good would have hastened to do it. Thus we know that seeking intercession from him now (in this world) is a great wrong, because it involves calling upon someone other than Allah and doing something which is an obstacle to intercession, for intercession is available only to those who sincerely believe in Allah alone (Tawheed)
The people in the place of standing (on the Day of Resurrection) will only ask the Prophet (peace be upon him) to intercede for them so that judgement will be passed, because he will be there with them and because he will be able to turn to his Lord and ask Him. This is like asking a person who is alive and present to do make du’aa’ for one, which is something that he is able to do.
Hence it is not narrated that any of the people in the place of standing will ask him (peace be upon him) to intercede for them that their sins might be forgiven.
Those who ask him for intercession now, based on the fact that it will be permissible to ask him for that in the Hereafter, if their claims were justified, would have to limit what they say to, “O Messenger of Allah, intercede for us that judgement may be passed”! But they do something other than that. They do not limit it to a request for intercession, rather they ask the Prophet (peace be upon him) – and others – to relieve their distress and send down mercy; they turn to him at times of calamity; they pray to him on land and sea, at times of ease and times of difficulty, ignoring the words of Allah (interpretation of the meaning):
“Is not He (better than your gods) Who responds to the distressed one, when he calls on Him, and Who removes the evil, and makes you inheritors of the earth, generations after generations?”
From the above it is clear to every fair-minded person that the correct kind of intercession is intercession that depends on the permission and approval of Allah, because all intercession belongs to Him. That also includes asking for intercession from living people who are able to do that concerning worldly matters, for which Allah has granted permission. It should be pointed out here that this kind of intercession is permitted because Allah has given permission for it, since it involves no kind of emotional attachment to the person, rather the point is that it is a means, like all other means which Islam permits us to use. The kind of intercession which is forbidden is asking someone other than Allah to do something that no one is able to do except Allah, because intercession belongs to no one besides Allah, and no one can do it unless Allah grants him leave and approves of him. So whoever seeks intercession from anyone else has transgressed upon the exclusive preserve of Allah and has wronged himself, and has exposed himself to being deprived of the intercession of the Prophet (peace be upon him) on the Day of Resurrection. We ask Allah to keep us safe and sound, and we ask Him to cause our Prophet (peace be upon him) to intercede for us … Ameen.
For more information see al-Shafaa’ah ‘inda Ahl al-Sunnah wa’l-Jamaa’ah by Shaykh Naasir al-Juday’; al-Qawl al-Mufeed by Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Uthaymeen, 1/423; A’laam al-Sunnah al-Manshoorah, 144.
 This is narrated by Ahmad, Tirmidhi and Ibn Maajah. Majmoo' al-Fataawa Shaykh al-Islam
 (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 7510)
 Tahqeeq at-Tahaawiyah. See Sharh at-Tahaawiyah, pp. 175.
 - This is narrated by Muslim and Tirmidhi. Saheeh al-Jaami', 2/21
Al-Ashqar, Umar S., The Messengers and the Messages, IIPH, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 2003, p. 282-283.