On the 4th of Dhul’Hajj, the tenth year of after Hijrah, the Prophet (peace be upon him) entered Makkah for the final time to perform Hajj, with 144,000 Muslim men and women. The Prophet (peace be upon him) realized that his mission was coming to an end and that it was necessary to bid farewell to his loving companions.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) during this occasion gave a historic sermon in which he explained the principles of Islam. He said:
“O People, Listen to my words carefully, for I know not whether after this year I shall ever meet you again at this place. O People! Your lives and your property are sacred until you meet your Lord, as are this place, this day and this month. Remember, you will indeed meet your Lord and answer for your deeds…You have your rights over your wives and they have rights over you…Do treat your women well and be kind to them, for they are your partners and committed helpers…Listen carefully, O People! And understand well. I leave behind me two things: the Qur’an and my example (the Sunnah). If you follow them, you will not go astray. O People! Listen to my words. Know that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that all Muslims comprise one brotherhood.
People, hear that your Lord is One, and that your father is one. You must know that no Arab has superiority over a non-Arab, and no non-Arab has superiority over an Arab, or a red man over a black man, or a black man over a red, except in terms of what each person has of piety. ”
The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) then faced the heavens and said: “Be My witness, O Allah, that I have conveyed Your message to Your people”.
Allah revealed the following verses of the Qur’an on this occasion:
“This day I have perfected your religion for you, and have completed my favour upon you, and have chosen for you as your religion al-Islam”. (Surah 5: 3)