Question: I heard somewhere that the Prophet (peace be upon him) has 99 names? Is this true? What are those names?
Answered by Sheikh `Alî A. al-Jumu`ah, professor at al-Imâm University, Qasîm Branch
The names of our Prophet (peace be upon him) cited in the hadîth related by Jubayr b. Mut`im are five. He relates that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “I have five names: I am Muhammad, I am Ahmad, I am al-Mâhî for Allah eliminates disbelief by me, I am al-Hâshir since all people gather under me at the day of Judgment, and I am al-`Âqib”. [Sahîh al-Bukhârî (3532), Sahîh Muslim (2354), Sunan al-Tirmidhî (2842) and Musnad Ahmad (80/81/84)].
These are the authentic names of the Prophet (peace be upon him) that he cited himself. There are other names stated in the Qur’an. Ibn Hajar writes: “The other names of the Prophet (peace be upon him) which are mentioned in the Qur’an are: al-Shâhid, al-Mubashshir, al-Nadhîr, al-Mubayyin, al-Dâ`î ilâ Allah, al-Sirâj al-Munîr, al-Dhikr, al-Rahmah, al-Ni`mah, al-Hâdî, al-Shahîd, al-Amîn, al-Muzammil, and al-Mudaththir. More names came in the hadîth related by `Abd Allah b. `Amr b. al-`Âs which is al-Mutawakkil.
Other famous names are: al-Mukhtâr, al-Mustafâ, al-Shâfi`, al-Mushaffa`, al-Sâdiq, al-Musaddiq and others.
Ibn al-Qayyim mentioned other names in his book Zad al-Ma`âd such as al-Qâsim, al-Dahûk, al-Qattâl, `Abd Allah, Sayyid Walad Âdam, Sâhib Liwâ’ al-Hamd, Sâhib al-Maqâm al-Mahmûd. However, these are all descriptions and not really names.
What the questioner said regarding 99 names is not substantiated by any authentic hadîth related from the Prophet (peace be upon him).
Ibn Dahiyyah writes in his book devoted to the prophetic names: “Some people said that the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) names are equivalent to Allah’s names (i.e., 99 names)... "If someone were to search for them, he would find them to be more like three hundred names.”
He then goes on to enumerate these names in his book, referring them back to his sources in the Qur’ân and in different biographical works. He also mentioned the proper way of pronouncing these names and their meanings.
This is as far as I can go in this matter, and may peace and blessing be upon our Prophet Muhammad.