Ever since Korosh the Great (557-529 B.C.) united the Persians, they ruled Iraq and its
neighbourhood. Nobody could shake off their authority until Alexander the Great vanquished their
king Dara I and thus subdued the Persians in 326 B.C. Persian lands were thenceforth divided and
ruled by kings known as “the Kings of Sects”, an era which lasted until 230 A.D. Meanwhile, the
Qahtanians occupied some Iraqi territories, and were later followed by some ‘Adnanians who
managed to share some parts of Mesopotamia with them.
The Persians, under the leadership of Ardashir, who had established the Sasanian state in 226 A.D,
regained enough unity and power to subdue the Arabs living in the vicinity of their kingdom, and
force Quda‘a to leave for Syria , leaving the people of Heerah and Anbar under the Persian domain.
During the time of Ardashir, Juzaima Alwaddah exercised rulership over Heerah, Rabi‘a and Mudar,
and Mesopotamia. Ardashir had reckoned that it was impossible for him to rule the Arabs directly
and prevent them from attacking his borders unless he appointed as king one of them who enjoyed
support and power of his tribe. He had also seen that he could make use of them against the
Byzantine kings who always used to harass him. At the same time, the Arabs of Iraq could face the
Arabs of Syria who were in the hold of Byzantine kings. However, he deemed it fit to keep a Persian
battalion under command of the king of Heerah to be used against those Arabs who might rebel
After the death of Juzaima around 268 A.D., ‘Amr bin ‘Adi bin Nasr Al-Lakhmi was appointed as king
by the Persian King Sabour bin Ardashir. ‘Amr was the first of the Lakhmi kings who ruled Heerah
until the Persians appointed Qabaz bin Fairuz in whose reign appeared someone called Mazdak, who
called for dissoluteness in social life. Qabaz, and many of his subjects, embraced Mazdak’s religion
and even called upon the king of Heerah, Al-Munzir bin Ma’ As-Sama’, to follow after. When the
latter, because of his pride and self-respect, rejected their orders, Qabaz discharged him and
nominated Harith bin ‘Amr bin Hajar Al-Kindi, who had accepted the Mazdaki doctrine.
The Sealed Nectar